Doctorate / Research Masters in Translation and Intercultural Studies


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Masters course descriptions, 2010-11

Basic readings in Translation Studies
Anthony Pym and tutors (distance mode)

Students are expected to complete worksheets on basic background readings in Translation Studies. The official reading period begins on September 1 and will be conducted as a group process with on-line communication. Students will be provided with worksheets comprising basic questions to be answered (in writing) and discussion (via email and chat). Prior to that period, it is recommended that students ensure that the basic texts are available to them. This could involve either purchasing the books or requesting that libraries order them.

Essential general texts
Williams, Jenny and Andrew Chesterman. 2002. The Map. A beginner's guide to doing research in translation studies. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.
Toury, Gideon. 1995. Descriptive Translation Studies and beyond. Benjamins: Amsterdam and Philadelphia.
Hermans, Theo. 1999. Translation in Systems. Manchester: St Jerome.
Nord, Christiane. 1997. Translating as a Purposeful Activity. Functionalist Approaches Explained. Manchester: St Jerome.
Venuti, Lawrence, ed. 2000. The Translation Studies Reader. London and New York: Routledge,

Specialized background texts (for students working in these areas):
Gile, Daniel, Helle Dam, Friedel Dubslaff, Bodil Martinsen and Anne Schjoldager, eds. 2001. Getting started in interpreting research. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Kiraly, Don. 2000. A Social Constructivist Approach to Translator Education, Manchester: St Jerome.
Pöchhacker, Franz & Miriam Shlesinger, eds. 2002. The Interpreting Studies Reader. London: Routledge.
Pym, Anthony. 1998. Method in Translation History. Manchester: St Jerome.

Communicating research in English
Anthony Pym and tutors (distance mode)

This online course will provide pointers to the norms of a range of academic texts genres in English, written, spoken and electronic. Addressed to both native and non-native speakers, it will not be a general course in the English language, nor will it duplicate general communications-skills courses. Instead, it will focus restrictively on the features specific to English in these genres, at each point noting and correcting common faults. Since the course will be open to participants from other doctoral programs, the linguistic analyses will be kept as accessible as possible.

Main topics
1. Norms of technical English
2. Varieties and styles of academic English
3. Academic articles
4. Abstracts
5. Reviews
6. Applications for funding
7. Presenting statistics
8. Revision techniques
9. Oral presentations
10. PowerPoint presentations

Principles of empirical research in Translation Studies 1
Daniel Gile

This course is designed to give students the basic technical skills needed for research in the general field of Translation and Intercultural Studies, viewed as part of the behavioral sciences. Attention is paid research design and the control of variables. Readings will mainly be focused on the design of previous research projects, with special attention to their strengths and weaknesses. The course also includes an introduction to inferential statistics and to the principles of scientometric research in the behavioral sciences. The course will place research principles and techniques within the context of an interdiscipline, drawing on the techniques and findings of several better-established disciplines. Special attention is given to the role of theory development in empirical research design. As an example of interdisciplinarity, an introductory analysis will be made of the relations between translation research and research on interpreting, where the latter draws on cognitive sciences.

Main topics
1. Pre-testing and piloting in empirical research
2. Analyzing relations between different kinds of variables
3. Controlling variability
4. The rationale of inferential statistics (post-seminar reading material)
5. Scientometric research (post-seminar reading material)
6. The role of theory in empirical research
7. Issues in interdisciplinarity
8. The role of cognitive concepts in interpreting research
9. Interaction between translation and interpreting research
10. Overview of problems in research design.

Bibliography and suggested reading
Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun. 2000. "Theory-related translation research: Some thoughts on methodology". Hermes 26, 81-95.
Gile, Daniel, Helle Dam, Friedel Dubslaff, Bodil Martinsen and Anne Schjoldager (eds). 2001. Getting started in interpreting research. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Olohan, Maeve, ed. 2000. Intercultural Faultlines. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.
Tymoczko, Maria. 2002. "Connecting the two infinite orders: Research methods in translation studies". Theo Hermans (ed), Crosscultural transgressions. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing, 9-25.

Principles of empirical research in Translation Studies 2
Andrew Chesterman

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic skills needed for research in the general field of Translation Studies. Attention is paid to topic selection, modes of argument and evidence, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. Attempts will be made to stimulate debate on these issues, particularly as they affect research ethics. The seminar will build on the main points made in The Map (2002). Most of the issues raised will be refined and debated in later modules.

Main topics
1. PhD research: expectations
2. Issues in topic selection and topic planning
3. Choosing a conceptual framework
4. Basic models of translation (comparative, process, causal)
5. Argument and evidence
6. Making different kinds of claims/hypotheses
7. Testing hypotheses
8. Critical reading of previous research
9. Drawing conclusions
10. Research ethics and social relevance

Required preliminary reading
Williams, Jenny and Andrew Chesterman. 2002. The Map. A beginner's guide to doing research in translation studies. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.
Tymoczko, Maria. 2002. "Connecting the two infinite orders: Research methods in translation studies". Theo Hermans, ed. Crosscultural transgressions. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing, 9-25.

Bibliography and suggested reading
Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun. 2000. "Theory-related translation research: Some thoughts on methodology". Hermes 26, 81-95.
Gile, Daniel, Helle Dam, Friedel Dubslaff, Bodil Martinsen and Anne Schjoldager, eds. 2001. Getting started in interpreting research. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Johansson, Stig. 2004. ·Why change the subject? On changes in subject selection in translation from English into Norwegian·, Target 16, 1.
Olohan, Maeve, ed. 2000. Intercultural Faultlines: Research Models in Translation Studies I: Textual and Cognitive Aspects. Manchester: St Jerome.

Contemporary theories of translation
Anthony Pym (available in distance mode)

This course will attempt to give an overview of twentieth-century theories of mediation between cultures, using that frame as a background for the identification and presentation of the main theories of translation. The course is intended to develop a vocabulary for talking about different approaches to mediation, despite the fact that many of the available theories were developed with respect to translation only. Emphasis will be placed on the approaches that are not dealt with extensively elsewhere in the program, particularly Skopostheorie and associated action-based approaches, as well as the analytical tradition leading from Quine. The plurality of available theories will be dealt with through models of interdisciplinarity, which will in turn be related to the plurality of available research designs.

Main topics
1. Structuralist dilemmas and the impossibility of translation
2. Hermeneutic approaches
3. Equivalence-based approaches
4. Systems-based approaches
5. Action-based approaches
6. Cognitive approaches
7. Quine and the analytical tradition
8. Cooperation theory
9. Theories of interdisciplinarity
10. Consequences for research design

Bibliography and suggested reading
Axelrod, Robert. 1997. The Complexity of Cooperation. Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Berman, Antoine. 1984. L'épreuve de l'étranger. Culture et traduction dans l'Allemagne romantique. Paris: Gallimard.
Chau, Simon S. C. (Chau Suicheong). 1984. 'Hermeneutics and the translator: The ontological dimension of translating', Multilingua 3(2):71-77.
Hermans, Theo. 1999. Translation in Systems. Descriptive and System-Oriented Approaches Explained. Manchester: St.Jerome.
Pym, Anthony. 2000. "On Cooperation", Intercultural Faultlines: Research Models in Translation Studies I: Textual and Cognitive Aspects, ed. Maeve Olohan, Manchester: St Jerome Publishing. 181-192.
Quine, Willard Van Orman (1960). 'Translation and Meaning'. Word and Object. Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press. 26-79. Reprinted in Lawrence Venuti, ed. The Translation Studies Reader. London and New York: Routledge. 94-112.
Vermeer, Hans. J. 1989. "Skopos and Commission in Translational Action", trans. Andrew Chesterman in Andrew Chesterman, ed. Readings in Translation Theory. Helsinki: Oy Finn Lectura, 173-187. Reprinted in Lawrence Venuti, ed. The Translation Studies Reader. London and New York: Routledge. 221-232.

Functionalist approaches to translation
Christina Schäffner

This course will provide a metalanguage for describing texts and translation shifts at above-sentence level, focusing on methodological tools from pragmatics and text linguistics. Concepts such as coherence and cohesion, genre and text type, speech acts, frames and scenes will be discussed in their relevance to translation. The second part of the course will work on authentic case studies drawn from the field of news texts, with discussion of how far the findings made in that field can be generalized. The aim of the course is not to cover everything that has been done in linguistic theory, but to provide descriptive tools that can be used for the analysis of cross-cultural communication in general.

Main topics
1. Text-linguistic models
2. Genre analysis
3. Speech Act theory
4. Gricean cooperation and maxims
5. Pragmatic features
6. The nature of news translation
7. Goffman's theories of the Participation Framework
8. Frames and scenes
9. Audience Design
10. Politeness.

Bibliography and suggested reading
Beaugrande, de Robert and Dressler, Wolfgang (1981) Introduction to Text Linguistics. London: Longman.
Colina, Sonia (1997) Contrastive Rhetoric and Text-Typological Conventions in Translation Teaching. Target 9, 335-53.
Göpferich, Susanne (1995) Textsorten in Naturwissenschaft und Technik. Pragmatische Typologie - Kontrastierung - Translation. Tübingen: Narr.
Grice, H. Paul. 1975. 'Logic and Conversation', in Peter Cole and Jerry L. Morgan, eds Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts, New York: Academic Press, 41-58._
Hatim, Basil and Mason, Ian (1990) Discourse and the Translator. London: Longman.
Hatim, Basil and Mason, Ian (1997) The Translator as Communicator. London: Routledge.
Hickey, Leo (ed.) (1998) The Pragmatics of Translation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Hickey, Leo and Stewart, Miranda (eds) (2005) Politeness in Europe. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Neubert, Albrecht and Shreve, Gregory M. (1992) Translation as Text. Kent and London: Kent State University Press.
Reiß, Katharina (1971), Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Übersetzungskritik. München
Trosborg, Anna (ed.) Analysing Professional Genres. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Trosborg, Anna (ed.) (1997) Text typology and translation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Sociocultural transfer analysis
Itamar Even-Zohar

The course will discuss parameters of culture transfer in the context of the subsistence of groups. When culture is viewed as a repertoire of solutions, either ready-made or potential, the necessity to provide alternative solutions for states of changing circumstances becomes apparent. Such solutions may be provided from various sources, depending on the availability of choices. A major source may be transfer from some other repertoire. However, if there is no contact, or the ability to transfer is non-extant, or blocked, a society may harbor in a situation of danger for its very existence, let alone success. The course will further discuss the agencies through which transfer is made viable.
The students are expected to read the suggested texts and extract from them the hypotheses relevant to the questions topics below. Depending on the number of participants, the class can be divided to ‘reporting teams’ each for a bunch of texts.

1. The factors of culture: Repertoires and other factors
2. Homogeneity-Heterogeneity
3. Subsistence of groups: Adaptation; “adaptive fitness”
4. Acculturation
5. Intercultural contacts: Boundaries, competition, Resistance & Resentment
6. Agencies of transfer: importers; mediators; solution-makers
7. Cultural translation

Reading List (temporary)

Functionalist translation analysis
Christiane Nord

It is often said that Skopos theory has "dethroned" (or even abolished!) the source text. Nevertheless, translators still have to translate source texts, and to do this, they must identify translation units and decide what to do with them in the translation process. The same applies to translation description and criticism or even quality assessment: In order to compare source and target texts and achieve a fair judgment of a translation, we need a tertium comparationis, which I suggest should be the communicative function of the translation unit. The course will deal with all the functional aspects that come into play both in translation and translation description, allowing also a look at what they might mean for translator training.

Main topics
1. Basic principles of Skopos theory
2. Defining the purpose: the translation brief
3. A 4-function model for translation analysis
4. Linguistic and non-linguistic function markers
5. Communicative functions across language-and-culture boundaries
6. Text functions - translation functions
7. Norms and conventions in functional translation
8. Functional units in translation description
9. Source-text analysis vs. target-text analysis: functionalist aspects of evaluation
10. Functionalist analysis in Bible translation

Bibliography and suggested reading
Bühler, Karl (1934): Sprachtheorie, Jena: Fischer [In Spanish: Teoría del lenguaje]
Jakobson, Roman (1960): Linguistics and Poetics, in Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.) Style in Language. Cambrdige/Mass.:
Nord, Christiane (1995): Text-functions in translation. Titles and Headings as a Case in Point, in Target 7:2 (1995), 261-284.
Nord, Christiane (1997a): Translating as a Purposeful Activity. Functionalist Approaches Explained. Manchester: St. Jerome.
Nord, Christiane (1997b): Functional Translation Units, in: Anna Mauranen & Tiina Puurtinen (eds) Translation - Acquisition - Use. AfinLA Yearbook 1997. Jyväskyla: Publications de l'Association Finlandaise de Linguistique Appliquée, 41-50. [In Spanish: La unidad de traducción desde un enfoque funcional, in Quaderns. Revista de traducció 1:1998, 65-77.]
Nord, Christiane (1997c): A Functional Typology of Translations, in Anna Trosborg (ed.), Text Typology and Translation, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins 1997, 43-66.
Nord, Christiane (2002): Function and Loyalty in Bible Translation, in María Calzada Pérez (ed.): Apropos of Ideology. Translation Studies on Ideology - Ideologies in Translation Studies, Manchester: St. Jerome, 89-112.
Nord, Christiane (2004a): La función fática en los textos publicitarios. Una comparación estilística intercultural español - inglés - alemán, in Lourdes Lorenzo García und Ana Pereira (Hgg.): Traducción subordinada III: Traducción y publicidad, Vigo: Servicio de Publicacións, 213-230.
Nord, Christiane (2004b): Comunicarse funcionalmente en dos lenguas, in Faber, Pamela / Jiménez, Catalina / Wotjak, Gerd (eds) (2004): Léxico especializado y comunicación interlingüística. Granada: Granada Lingvistica, 285-296.
Nord, Christiane (2005): Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Methodology, and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis, 2nd revised edition, Amsterdam-Atlanta: Rodopi.
Nord, Christiane (2006): Functional and Skopos Oriented Approaches to Translation, in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd Ed., edited by Keith Brown, Elsevier: Oxford, 2006 (ISBN 0-08-044299-4).
Vermeer, Hans J. (1989): Skopos and commission in translational action, in Chesterman, Andrew (ed.): Readings in Translation, Helsinki: Oy Finn Lectura Ab, 173-187.
Reiss, Katharina & Vermeer, Hans J. (1984): Grundlegung einer allgemeinen Translationstheorie, Tübingen: Niemeyer. [In Spanish: Fundamentos para una teoría funcional de la traducción, 1996]

Translation and human language technologies
Arnt Lykke Jakobson

This course will focus on experimental methods in translation-process research. It aims at introducing participants to studying translation processes experimentally, i.e. in a laboratory setting. Three non-invasive monitoring technologies: eye-tracking, keystroke logging and video/audio will be introduced and two methods for eliciting verbal reports, think aloud and technology-reinforced recall in combination with retrospective interviews. The course also aims at heightening participants’ awareness of the differences between working with product data and process data and of the differences between in vivo observation and laboratory experiments. Finally, the course aims at giving participants hands-on experience with designing translation process experiments using Translog.

Main topics

  1. Reading – for comprehension, for translation, and while translating
  2. Analyzing eye-movement data as evidence of meaning construction
  3. Typing a translation; representing meaning
  4. Analyzing keystrokes as evidence of cognitive processing of meaning
  5. Analyzing the coordination of reading and typing processes
  6. Guessing at the in-between: bridging meaning construction and meaning representation;
  7. Hands on session: Creating Translog projects; display options; logging options (keystrokes only or in combination with eyetracker and/or other monitoring tools); data analysis
  8. Qualitative data elicitation methods: think aloud; technology-reinforced recall and retrospective interview; analysis of qualitative data;
  9. Modeling translational cognitive processes; predicting translational action (at micro-level)
  10. Developing interactive translator-aware support tools

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Bibliography and suggested reading

Alves, F. ed. (2003) Triangulating Translation. Perspectives in Process Oriented Research. Amsterdam: Benjamins
Ericsson, K.-A. & Simon, H. (1984/1993) Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. 2nd rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
Krings, H. P. Wege ins Labyrinth – Fragestellungen und Methoden der Übersetzungsprozessforschung im Überblick. In: H. Lee-Jahnke, ed. (2005) Processes and Pathways in Translation and Interpretation (50th anniversary issue of Meta), 342-358.
Olive, T. & Levy, C. M. Eds. (2002) Contemporary Tools and Techniques for Studying Writing. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Patton, M. Q. (2002) Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Radach, R. & Kennedy, A. & Rayner, K. (2004) Eye Movements and Information Processing During Reading. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.
Rayner, K. & Pollatsek, A. (1989) ThePsychology of Reading. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Schilperoord, Joost (1996) It’s About Time. Temporal Aspects of Cognitive Processes in Text Production. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Sullivan, K. P. H. & Lindgren, E., eds. (2006) Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Research on interpreting
Franz Pöchhacker

This course will trace the history of ideas that have privileged conference interpreting over the various other forms of interpreting. A survey will be made of the main methodological options for empirical research on the wider field of interpreting. Fieldwork, survey research, and experimentation will be introduced as the three main strategic approaches, illustrated by selected studies in the literature. The use of various methods and techniques for the collection and analysis of data, including observation, interviewing, and document analysis, will in turn be illustrated by case studies of selected research on topics such as working memory, input variables, role descriptions and performance analysis. In keeping with the broad concept of 'interpreting', the course will address research issues in diverse settings and domains of interpreting, including media interpreting, and community-based interpreting in spoken as well as signed languages.

Main topics
1. Variety and history of research in the field
2. Fieldwork
3. Survey research
4. Experimentation
5. Data collection techniques
6. Accounting for contextual factors
7. Media interpreting
8. Community-based interpreting
9. Signed interpreting

Reference text
Pöchhacker, Franz & Miriam Shlesinger, eds. 2002. The Interpreting Studies Reader. London: Routledge.

Bibliography and suggested reading
Garzone, G. & M. Viezzi, eds. 2002. Interpreting in the 21st Century. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Gile, Daniel, Helle V. Dam, Friedel Dubslaff, Bodil Martinsen & Anne Schjoldager, eds. 2001. Getting Started in Interpreting Research. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Gile, Daniel. 1995. "Fidelity Assessment in Consecutive Interpretation: an Experiment", Target 7 (1): 151-64.
Pöchhacker, Franz. 2000. Dolmetschen. Konzeptuelle Grundlagen und deskriptive Untersuchungen. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
Seguinot, Candace. 1997. Accounting for Variability in Translation. In: Danks, J. H., Shreve, G. M., Fountain, S. B. & McBeath, M. K. eds. Cognitive Processes in Translation and Interpreting. London: Sage. 104-19.
Sonja Tirkkonen-Condit & Riitta Jääskeläinen, eds 2000. Tapping and Mapping the Processes of Translation and Interpreting. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Research on translator training
Christopher Scott-Tennent (distance mode)

This course will review several empirical research projects dealing with the training of translators, following through and analyzing each successive step in the research process. The focus will be on the teaching of translation strategies, their definition in operational terms, the selection of subjects, control groups, control of variables, final measurement, statistical analysis, and the drawing of conclusions. Participants will be expected to draw up and apply empirical research designs related to this model, making this course a practical application of the concepts and procedures developed in previous courses.

Main topics
1. Translation strategies as object
2. Operational definitions
3. Selection of subjects
4. Controlling variables
5. Control groups
6. Questionnaire design
7. Compiling data
8. Statistical significance
9. Problems of generalization
10. The limits of quantitative methodology

Bibliography and suggested reading
Bachman, Lyle F. 1990. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beeby, Allison, Doris Ensinger, Marisa Presas, eds. 2000. Investigating Translation. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Campbell, Stuart. 2000. "Choice Network Analysis in Translation Research", Maeve Olohan, ed. Intercultural Faultlines. Research Models in Translation Studies I. Textual and Cognitive Aspects, Manchester: St Jerome, 29-42.
González, María, Christopher Scott-Tennent, Fernanda Rodríguez. 2001. "Training in the application of translation strategies for undergraduate scientific translation students". Meta 46/4: 737-744.
Hurtado Albir, Amparo. ed. 1999. Enseñar a traducir: metodología en la formación de traductores e intérpretes, Madrid: Edelsa.
Kautz, Ulrich 2000. Handbuch Didaktik des Übersetzens und Dolmetschens, München: Iudicum, Goethe-Institut.
Kiraly, Don. 2000. A Social Constructivist Approach to Translator Education. Empowerment from Theory to Practice, Manchester: St Jerome.

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Researching mediation between cultures
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